Original Article

Very High Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes Among Children Aged Under 15 Years in Tlemcen, Northwest Algeria (2015-2018)

10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2020.2020.0073

  • Sarra Khater
  • Ammaria Aouar
  • Nawel Bensmain
  • Salih Bendedouche
  • Nafissa Chabni
  • Houari Hamdaoui
  • Abdellatif Moussouni
  • Zakarya Moqaddem

Received Date: 27.04.2020 Accepted Date: 07.09.2020 J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 0;0(0):0-0 [e-Pub] PMID: 32938578

Objective:

In Algeria, there a lack of data of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). According to the estimates of the IDF 2019, Algeria ranks 7th among countries with the highest prevalence of T1D. This study aims to determine the incidence of T1D in children under the age of 15 years, living in Tlemcen in Northwest Algeria.

Methods:

A retrospective study conducted on data of children (<15 years) newly diagnosed with T1D in Tlemcen between 2015 and 2018. The completeness of the ascertainment was measured using the two-source capture–recapture method. Total average incidences, by sex, by onset age group, and by season of onset were calculated per 100000 and per year.

Results:

During the study period, 437 new cases of T1D were registered, among them, 233 boys and 204 girls, with a sex ratio of 1.14. The average annual incidence rate of childhood T1D was 38.5/100000 persons confidence interval (CI) (95% CI, 35.20-41.79) (boys: 40.51, 95% CI, 38.16-42.85; girls: 36.49, 95% CI, 34.17-38.80). The incidence rates in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 were respectively 36.6 (95% CI, 33.72-39.48), 38.7 (95% CI, 35.43-41.97), 39.3 (95% CI, 35.97-42.62) and 39.5 (95% CI, 36.12-42.87)/100000. The most cases of newly diagnosed children were noticed in the in winter and autumn seasons. Ketoacidosis at diagnosis was present in 29.2% of patients.

Conclusion:

The incidence of childhood T1D in Tlemcen was 38.5/100000, this incidence is in the "extremely high" category of the WHO DiaMond project classification of diabetes giving this region a very high risk.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes; children; incidence; Tlemcen; Northwest Algeria.