ISSN: 1308-5727 | E-ISSN: 1308-5735
Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Year: 2023
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Turkish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes
Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings between Healthy Children and Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Autoimmune Thyroiditis [J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol]
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2023; 15(4): 390-396 | DOI: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2022-12-16

Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings between Healthy Children and Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Hüseyin Anıl Korkmaz1, Ali Devebacak2, İbrahim Mert Erbaş1, Cumali Değirmenci2, Nilufer Uyar1, Filiz Afrashi2, Behzat Özkan1
1University of Health Sciences Turkey, İzmir Dr. Behçet Uz Pediatric Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, İzmir, Turkey
2Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophtalmology, İzmir, Turkey

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the development of early diabetic retinopathy (DR) findings, a microvascular complication, between patients with isolated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (Group 1), concurrent T1DM and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) (Group 2), and healthy controls (Group 3), who were matched for age, sex, number, and body mass index for comparison.
METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that included individuals aged 10-20 years, and patients in Groups 1 and 2 had been followed up for ≥5 years. None of them developed clinical DR during the follow-up period. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to evaluate the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and parafoveal vascular density (PVD) for the development of early DR. OCTA findings were compared between patients and healthy controls.
RESULTS: Thirty-five individuals were included in each of the groups. The mean FAZ and PVD differed significantly between the three groups (FAZ, p=0.016; PVD, p=0.006). The mean FAZ was higher in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 (p=0.013 and p=0.119, respectively). The mean PVD was lower in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 (p=0.007, respectively). No significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 in terms of the mean FAZ and PVD (p=0.832 and p=0.653, respectively). The mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was significantly correlated with FAZ and PVD (FAZ: r=0.496, p<0.001; PVD: r=-0.36, p=0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In patients with T1DM who did not develop clinical DR, OCTA findings revealed an increase in FAZ, which was associated with higher HbA1c levels. The mean PVD was significantly lower in the group with coexisting AT and T1DM than in the control group. These results suggest that the coexistence of AT and T1DM can contribute to the development of microvascular complications. However, studies with larger patient series are required.

Keywords: Autoimmune thyroiditis, diabetic retinopathy, foveal avascular zone, optical coherence tomography angiography, parafoveal vessel density, type 1 diabetes mellitus

Hüseyin Anıl Korkmaz, Ali Devebacak, İbrahim Mert Erbaş, Cumali Değirmenci, Nilufer Uyar, Filiz Afrashi, Behzat Özkan. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings between Healthy Children and Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Autoimmune Thyroiditis. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2023; 15(4): 390-396

Corresponding Author: Hüseyin Anıl Korkmaz, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: English
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