INTRODUCTION: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder. Associated problems in 22q11.2 DS may include cardiac abnormalities, immune dysfunction, facial dysmorphism, with endocrine, genitourinary and gastrointestinal problems, and developmental delay. The aim of this study was to evaluate and present all endocrinological findings of patients with 22q11.2 DS from a single center.
METHODS: All participants had confirmed 22q11.2 DS by fluorescence in situ hybridization with hypoparathyroidism. Data were retrieved by retrospective review of patient records.
RESULTS: A total of 17 patients were reviewed. On physical examination, all patients had similar dysmorphic features. The median age at diagnosis was 45 days (1 day-13 years). Most cases (64.7%, 11/17) were diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism incidentally after routine tests. At the time of diagnosis, mean calcium was 7.04±0.80 mg/dL, phosphorus was 6.2±1.1 mg/dL, and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 11.5 (3.7-47.6) ng/L. Transient hypoparathyroidism was detected in five cases (29.4%). There was no significant difference between patients with permanent or transient hypoparathyroidism regarding gender, age at diagnosis, calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels. However, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in the transient group (p=0.036). During follow-up, short stature, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were absent. Thyroid autoantibodies were detected in two patients with normal thyroid function tests. Despite there being no pathological short stature, final stature was shorter than the general population (mean height standard deviation score: -0.94±0.83).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Hypocalcemia may be detected during acute illness in some cases where hypocalcemia appears at later ages. There was no significant difference between permanent and transient hypoparathyroidism cases in terms of PTH level. Recognition of the more specific facial findings is important to trigger investigation of genetic variants, additional anomalies, and for follow-up.