ISSN: 1308-5727 | E-ISSN: 1308-5735
Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Year: 2024

Abstracting & Indexing
Turkish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes
Diazoxide-unresponsive Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycaemia in a Preterm Infant with Heterozygous Insulin Receptor Gene Mutation [J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol]
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. Ahead of Print: JCRPE-93685 | DOI: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2022-12-10

Diazoxide-unresponsive Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycaemia in a Preterm Infant with Heterozygous Insulin Receptor Gene Mutation

Sarah Wing-yiu POON, Brian Hon-yin CHUNG, Mabel Siu-chun WONG, Anita Man-ching TSAN
Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in insulin receptor gene (INSR) lead to marked insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in Donohue syndrome and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, conditions which are associated with significant morbidity early in life. On the other hand, heterozygous INSR gene mutations result in milder phenotype known as type A insulin resistance syndrome. While presentation in adults with this condition is well reported, phenotypes in infant are less well-characterized. We herein report an infant presenting with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia who did not respond to diazoxide therapy. She was subsequently found to carry heterozygous INSR gene mutation. Our patient was a female infant born at 29 weeks of gestation who developed recurrent hypoglycaemia in early infancy. Workup showed hyperinsulinism and she was started on first-line therapy with diazoxide and high-calorie feeds. However, continuous blood glucose monitoring showed post-prandial hyperglycaemia followed by rapid fall to hypogylcaemia. Whole exome sequencing was performed to investigate for diazoxide-unresponsive hyperinsulinism, which revealed a likely pathogenic mutation in the INSR gene c.1246C>T p. (R416X). This nonsense mutation was inherited from the father. With the molecular diagnosis, diazoxide was stopped and she followed a diet with low glycaemic-index food. Subsequent monitoring showed stable glucose profile. Our case highlights the importance to consider type A insulin resistance syndrome when no mutation could be identified in the ABCC8/KCNJ11 genes in diazoxide-unresponsive hyperinsulinism. With autosomal dominant inheritance, cascade screening should be performed in family members to identify those harbouring the mutation as they are at risk of early onset diabetes.

Keywords: Hyperinsulinism, hypoglycaemia, insulin receptor

Corresponding Author: Sarah Wing-yiu POON, China
Manuscript Language: English
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