ISSN: 1308-5727 | E-ISSN: 1308-5735
Volume : 14 Issue : 1 Year : 2022
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Turkish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL RESEARCH IN PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY - J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol: 14 (1)
Volume: 14  Issue: 1 - 2022
1.Cover

Pages I - XI

REVIEW
2.Recommendations for Clinical Decision-making in Children with Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease: Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease Joint Working Group Report
Şükrü Hatun, Buket Dalgıç, Damla Gökşen, Sema Aydogdu, Şenay Savaş Erdeve, Zarife Kuloğlu, Yaşar Doğan, Zehra Aycan, Gül Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Nuray Uslu Kızılkan, Alev Keser, Ömer Faruk Beşer, Mehmet Nuri Özbek, Aysun Bideci, Deniz Ertem, Olcay Evliyaoğlu, Beyza Eliuz Tipici, Tuğba Gökçe, Serra Muradoğlu, Orhun Çığ Taşkın, Tuğba Koca, Filiz Tütüncüler, Firdevs Baş, Feyza Darendeliler, Mukadder Ayşe Selimoğlu
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0139  Pages 1 - 9
It is well-known that in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the frequency of Celiac disease (CD) is increased due to mechanisms which are not fully elucidated but include autoimmune injury as well as shared genetic predisposition. Although histopathologic examination is the gold standard for diagnosis, avoiding unnecessary endoscopy is crucial. Therefore, for both clinicians and patients’ families, the diagnosis of CD remains challenging. In light of this, a joint working group, the Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease Joint Working Group, was convened, with the aim of reporting institutional data and reviewing current international guidelines, in order to provide a framework for clinicians. Several controversial issues were discussed: For CD screening in children with T1D, regardless of age, it is recommended to measure tissue transglutaminase-immunoglobulin A (tTG-IgA) and/or endomysial-IgA antibody due to their high sensitivity and specificity. However, the decision-making process based on tTG-IgA titer in children with T1D is still debated, since tTG-IgA titers may fluctuate in children with T1D. Moreover, seronegativity may occur spontaneously. The authors’ own data showed that most of the cases who have biopsy-proven CD had tTG-IgA levels 7-10 times above the upper limit. The decision for endoscopy based solely on tTG-IgA levels should be avoided, except in cases where tTG-IgA levels are seven times and above the upper limit. A closer collaboration should be built between divisions of pediatric endocrinology and gastroenterology in terms of screening, diagnosis and follow-up of children with T1D and suspicious CD.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
3.Efficacy of the Novel Degludec/Aspart Insulin Co-formulation in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Real-life Experience with One Year of IDegAsp Therapy in Poorly Controlled and Non-compliant Patients
Tarık Kırkgöz, Mehmet Eltan, Sare Betül Kaygusuz, Zehra Yavaş Abalı, Didem Helvacıoğlu, Tuba Seven Menevşe, Büşra Gürpınar Tosun, Tülay Güran, Abdullah Bereket, Serap Demircioğlu
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0113  Pages 10 - 16
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the efficacy of degludec/aspart (IDegAsp) insulin co-formulation in children and adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes (T1DM).
METHODS: Patients with poorly controlled T1DM on basal-bolus insulin regimes and having compliance problems related to insulin injections were switched to IDegAsp and were included. Data on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, hypoglycemic episodes, frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and insulin doses were recorded at baseline and after one year of IDegAsp treatment.
RESULTS: Fifty patients (22 girls; 44%) were started on IDegAsp. The mean±standard deviation (range) age and duration of diabetes were 12.9±3.4 (4-18) and 5.2±3.1 (1.0-13.7) years, respectively. At the end of one year, 38 patients were still on IDegAsp, whereas 12 patients had opted to resume their original treatments. In those who continued on IDegAsp, HbA1c levels did not change, but the number of self-reported mild-moderate hypoglycemic episodes decreased significantly (p<0.05). In the year before switching to IDegAsp, 11 DKA attacks in 9 patients were observed, whereas this decreased to 4 DKA attacks in 4 patients after one year of IDegAsp therapy (p=0.06).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: IDegAsp regimen may improve clinical management in poorly controlled basal-bolus insulin regimen T1DM patients who have frequent hypoglycemia and DKA attacks, as well as in those with poor compliance with multiple injections. Although a simplified basal-bolus IDegAsp regimen is an attractive option for patients with T1DM, some may not adapt to this treatment due to the fixed IAsp dose of IDegAsp.

4.Feminizing Adrenocortical Tumors as a Rare Etiology of Isosexual/Contrasexual Pseudopuberty
Doğuş Vurallı, Nazlı Gönç, Alev Özön, Saniye Ekinci, H. Serkan Doğan, Serdar Tekgül, Ayfer Alikaşifoğlu
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0170  Pages 17 - 28
INTRODUCTION: Estrogen-secreting adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are quite rare with feminizing adrenocortical tumors (FATs) accounting for 0.37-2% of all ACTs. The aim was to evaluate clinical and hormonal characteristics of FATS as well as treatment options and follow-up in the pediatric age group.
METHODS: Medical records of children with ACTs presenting to a single center in the last two decades were reviewed. Literature review within Pubmed revealed 34 pediatric patients (22 boys) with FAT among 192 articles.
RESULTS: Among the 25 children presenting with ACTs in the last two decades, two new pediatric cases of FAT were identified, one benign and the other malignant, in two genders with different clinical presentations. Literature review showed that FATs are extremely rare tumors that are most commonly seen in men and boys presenting with gynecomastia. FATs are more common in children ≤8 years of age, with a median age at diagnosis of six years. While boys present with contrasexual pseudopuberty signs, girls present with isosexual pseudopuberty. A high estrogen level strongly supports diagnosis, while elevations in other adrenal hormones may be seen. FATs are usually malignant in adults and prognosis is generally very poor. However, in children approximately half are benign although assessment of malignant potential depends on clinical behavior of the tumor. FATs are very unpredictable so even after surgery long-term follow-up is required. FATs presenting in childhood may have a better prognosis than adult presentation tumors as most FATs in children are followed without recurrence of tumor.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: FATs are more common in children ≤8 years of age, with a median age at diagnosis of six years. FATs in childhood may have a better prognosis than in adult males.

5.Diagnostic Value of Bilateral Petrosal Sinus Sampling in Children with Cushing Disease: A Multi-center Study
Hande Turan, Gönül Çatlı, Aslı Derya Kardelen, Ece Böber, Ayşehan Akıncı, Semra Çetinkaya, Özgecan Demirbaş, Eren Er, Saadet Olcay Evliyaoğlu, Bumin Dündar, Oya Ercan
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0152  Pages 29 - 36
INTRODUCTION: Although the sensitivity and specificity of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) were shown to be quite high in adult patients, pediatric studies are limited in number and have conflicting results, since BIPSS is much less commonly performed in children. The aim of this study was to assess the role of BIPSS in the detection and accuracy of lateralization of pituitary adenomas in pediatric patients with Cushing disease (CD) and its possible advantage over other diagnostic methods.
METHODS: This was a multicenter, nationwide, web-based study. The diagnostic value of BIPSS in 16 patients, aged between four and 16.5 years with a confirmed diagnosis of CD, was evaluated retrospectively. The sensitivity and specificity of BIPSS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were calculated, and compared statistically.
RESULTS: Standard tests, except for morning cortisol level, were effective in proving the presence of Cushing syndrome. While MRI findings were consistent with microadenoma in eight cases (50%), CD presence and lateralization was successfully predicted in 14 of 16 patients using BIPSS. BIPSS compared with MRI examination was significantly more accurate, both in pre-stimulation and post-stimulation results (p=0.047 and p=0.041, respectively). BIPSS showed a significantly higher sensitivity (92.8%) than MRI in detecting the pituitary source of adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results suggest that BIPSS is superior to MRI for diagnostic work-up to confirm the diagnosis of CD. Moreover, in line with previous studies, BIPSS was shown to provide better information about adenoma location, which is vital for possible surgical intervention.

6.First Evaluation of P Dispersion and Tp-e Parameters in Electrocardiograms of Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Oğuz Eğil, Fatih Şap, Beray Selver Eklioğlu, Mehmet Burhan Oflaz, Mehmet Emre Atabek, Tamer Baysal
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0165  Pages 37 - 45
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an important complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to evaluate the effect of metabolic disorders of DKA on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters in children.
METHODS: This study was performed between December 2018 and March 2020 and included 39 children with DKA and 40 healthy children. Three ECGs (one before and two after treatment) were obtained from the patient group. P-wave dispersion (Pd), QT dispersion (QTd), QTc dispersion (QTcd), Tp-e intervals, and the ratios of Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc were measured electrocardiographically. ECG parameters from children with DKA and healthy controls were compared statistically.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patient group was 10.50±4.12 years. There was no significant difference in terms of age, gender, weight, height and body mass index between patients and controls. In the patient group, a statistically significant increase was found in Pd, QTd and QTcd in the initial ECG compared to the second and third ECGs. Also, when the first and third ECGs were compared, a significant increase in Tp-e and Tp-e/QT was evident in the first ECG. There was a significant difference in the values of Pd, QTd, QTcd, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT in the first ECGs, obtained before DKA treatment, and those values obtained from the control group.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This is the first article evaluating Pd and Tp-e parameters in children with DKA. Cardiac arrhythmia risk markers were increased in children with DKA compared to controls. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of developing new arrhythmias during DKA treatment.

7.Mutation Screening and Functional Study of SLC26A4 in Chinese Patients with Congenital Hypothyroidism
Chang-Run Zhang, Yuan-Ping Shi, Cao-Xu Zhang, Feng Sun, Wen-Jiao Zhu, Rui-Jia Zhang, Ya Fang, Qian-Yue Zhang, Chen-Yan Yan, Ying-Xia Ying, Shuang-Xia Zhao, Huai-Dong Song
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0122  Pages 46 - 55
INTRODUCTION: Defects in the human solute carrier family 26 member 4 (SLC26A4) gene are reported to be one of the causes of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). We aimed to identify SLC26A4 mutations in Chinese patients with CH and analyze the function of the mutations.
METHODS: Patients with primary CH were screened for 21 CH candidate genes mutations by targeted next-generation sequencing. All the exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC26A4 were identified and analyzed. The function of six missense mutation in SLC26A4 were further investigated in vitro.
RESULTS: Among 273 patients with CH, seven distinct SLC26A4 heterozygous mutations (p.S49R, p.I363L, p.R409H, p.T485M, p.D661E, p.H723R, c.919-2A>G) were identified in 10 patients (3.66%, 10/273). In vitro experiments showed that mutation p.I363L, p.R409H, p.H723R affect the membrane location and ion transport of SLC26A4, while p.S49R did not. Mutation p.T485M and p.D661E only affected ion transport, but had no effect on the membrane location.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SLC26A4 mutations was 3.66% in Chinese patients with CH. Five mutations (p.I363L, p.R409H, p.T485M, p.D661E and p.H723R) impaired the membrane location or ion transport function of SLC26A4, suggesting important roles for Ile363, Arg409, Thr485, Asp661, and His723 residues in SLC26A4 function. As all variants identified were heterozygous, the pathogenesis of these patients cannot be explained, and the pathogenesis of these patients needs further study

8.17-Hydroxyprogesterone Response to Standard Dose Synacthen Stimulation Test in CYP21A2 Heterozygous Carriers and Non-carriers in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Groups: Meta-analyses
Seher Polat, Yusuf Kemal Arslan
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0184  Pages 56 - 68
INTRODUCTION: Standard dose synacthen stimulation test (SDSST) is a gold standard screening test for evaluating adrenal gland function. Despite studies using SDSST to identify heterozygosity in CYP21A2, the reliability of the test for this purpose is still controversial. Therefore, the meta-analyses were performed to determine the differences in 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) responses to standard dose (0.25 mg) SDSST in the diagnosis of CYP21A2 heterozygous individuals, with or without clinical signs of androgen excess disorders.
METHODS: PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched. A total of 1215 subjects (heterozygous carriers n=669, mutation-free controls n=546) were included in the meta-analyses.
RESULTS: Basal 17-OHP median/mean levels were 4.156 (3.05-10.5)/5.241 (±2.59) nmol/L and 3.90 (2.20-9.74)/4.67 (±2.62) nmol/L in symptomatic heterozygous carriers and symptomatic mutation-free controls, respectively. Stimulated 17-OHP median/mean levels were 17.29 (14.22-37.2)/19.51 (±7.63) nmol/L and 9.27 (7.32-15.9)/10.77 (±3.48) nmol/L in symptomatic heterozygous carriers and symptomatic mutation-free controls, respectively. Basal 17-OHP median/mean levels were 3.21 (2.64-4.78)/3.33 (±0.84) nmol/L and 3.12 (1.82-3.6)/2.83 (±0.71) nmol/L in asymptomatic heterozygous carriers and asymptomatic mutation-free healthy controls, respectively. Stimulated 17-OHP median/mean levels were 14.16 (12.73-16.37)/14.16 (±1.37) nmol/L and 6.26 (4.9-8.23)/6.48 (±1.2) nmol/L in asymptomatic heterozygous carriers and asymptomatic mutation-free healthy controls, respectively. The cut-off levels for stimulated 17-OHP were 10.48 nmol/L and 13.48 nmol/L for asymptomatic heterozygous and symptomatic heterozygous, respectively.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The meta-analyses support the idea that stimulated 17-OHP level has potential for use in identifying CYP21A2 carriers. Besides, considering differences in the basal and stimulated 17-OHP levels in symptomatic heterozygous individuals compared to those who were asymptomatic heterozygous could increase the accuracy of the test.

9.Serum Neudesin Levels in Obese Adolescents
Aliye Çelikkol, Ciğdem Binay, Özge Ayçiçek, Savaş Güzel
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0208  Pages 69 - 75
INTRODUCTION: Advances in knowledge of neurotrophic factors are now revealing the complex control of energy homeostasis and appetite, as well as the crucial role these factors play in nervous system function. The aim of this study was to assess serum levels of neudesin in adolescents with obesity and to examine the relationship between these levels and metabolic outcomes.
METHODS: Adolescents, aged 10-17 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into normal weight, obese and morbidly obese subgroups. Serum neudesin concentrations were compared between the groups.
RESULTS: In total, 88 adolescents were recruited, of whom 30 (34.1%) were normal weight, 15 (17.0%) were obese and 43 (48.9%) were morbidly obese. Neudesin levels were significantly lower in obese adolescents than in the control group (p=0.013). A correlation analysis applied to the whole study group revealed a negative correlation between serum neudesin concentration and body mass index (BMI) z scores (r=-0.40, p<0.001). Serum neudesin levels tended to increase in adolescents with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension but the differences were not significant (p=0.259, p=0.246, p=0.259, and p=0.523, respectively).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Serum neudesin levels were significantly correlated with BMI z score in obese adolescents. Generally, serum neudesin levels were low in obese and morbidly obese adolescents and tended to increase with the appearance of metabolic disorders. Both obesity and associated metabolic disorders have multifactorial causes. Therefore, we suggest that the role of the neudesin molecule in the regulatory mechanisms of obesity and metabolic disorders should be further investigated with well-designed studies enrolling larger groups.

10.Genetic Indices Relationship to Hyperglycemia-associated Biomarkers: Consistency with miRNA Expression in Egyptian Children with T1DM
Naglaa Fathy Barseem, Marwa Mohamed Mahasab, Ibrahem Fathy Zaed, Aya Eldesoky A. Said, Eman Masoud Abd El Gayed
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0080  Pages 76 - 86
INTRODUCTION: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are gaining acceptance as novel biomarkers for the autoimmune disorders. However, miRNA profiles have not been investigated in individuals at risk of or diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). To study the expression pattern of miRNAs in plasma obtained from patients with T1DM and compare with matched healthy controls.
METHODS: Equal numbers of patients with T1DM (90) and healthy-matched control children (90) were assessed for the expression profile of plasma miRNAs including miRNA-101-5p, miRNA-146-5p, miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-375, miRNA-126, and Let7a-5p using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methodology and quantitative real-time testing.
RESULTS: Analysis showed that miRNA-101, miRNA-21 and miRNA-375 were highly expressed, whereas, miRNA-146-5p, miRNA-126, and miRNA-Let7a-5p showed significantly low levels of expression in T1DM patients compared to controls (p<0.05). In addition, miRNA-101 and miRNA-146 correlated with age at diagnosis of T1DM and disease duration, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that miRNA-126 and Let7a-5p had a significant negative correlation with mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Dysregulation of the six miRNAs analyzed suggested a possible role as biomarkers in T1DM. miRNA-101 was correlated with age at diagnosis while miRNA-146 correlated with disease duration. Two further miRNAs correlated with the existing biomarker, HbA1c.

11.Investigating Genetic Mutations in a Large Cohort of Iranian Patients with Congenital Hyperinsulinism
Maryam Razzaghy-Azar, Saeedeh Saeedi, Sepideh Borhan Dayani, Samaneh Enayati, Farzaneh Abbasi, Somayyeh Hashemian, Peyman Eshraghi, Siroos Karimdadi, Parisa Tajdini, Rahim Vakili, Mahsa M. Amoli, Hanieh Yaghootkar
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0071  Pages 87 - 95
INTRODUCTION: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most frequent cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia from birth. Understanding the pathophysiology and genetic defects behind hyperinsulinism and its complications provides clues to timely diagnosis and management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the underlying genetic aetiology of a specific Iranian pediatric cohort with CHI.
METHODS: A total of 44 unrelated children, 20 girls and 24 boys, with an initial diagnosis or history of CHI from all regions of Iran were recruited between 2016 and 2019. Targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) was performed for the genes found in about half of CHI patients.
RESULTS: Mutations were identified in 24 cases (55%). Patients with a confirmed genetic cause were mainly diagnosed below age of one year old (p=0.01), had fewer other syndromic features, excluding seizure, (p=0.03), were less diazoxide responsive (p=0.04) and were more diazoxide unresponsive leading to pancreatectomy (p=0.007) compared to those with no identified mutations. Among 24 patients with identified genetic mutations, 17 (71%) had a mutation in ABCC8, 3 (12%) in KCNJ11, 3 (12%) in HADH, and 1 patient had a mutation in KMT2D. These included five novel mutations in ABCC8, KCNJ11, and KMT2D.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This is the biggest genetic study of CHI in Iran. A high frequency of recessive forms of CHI, especially HADH mutations, in our study could be due to a high rate of consanguineous marriage. We recommend tNGS to screen for all the CHI genes.

BRIEF REPORT
12.Comparison of Indonesian Growth Reference Chart and World Health Organization Child Growth Standard in Detecting Stunting: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 15,874 Children
Gilbert Sterling Octavius, Chelsea Serena br. Pardede, Cindy Clarissa Thandy, Clauvinna Adhityana Lie Fisca, Andry Juliansen
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021-8-12  Pages 96 - 101
Recognition of an overestimation of stunted children in Indonesia when using the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHOCGS) led to the creation of the Indonesian Growth Reference Chart (IGRC) in 2005, with further improvement in 2018. This systematic review aimed to determine whether there is a difference in the diagnosis of stunting when using these two charts. This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021259934). Literature research was performed on PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scielo, Medrxiv, Research Square, SSRN, and Biorxiv to identify studies published from 2018 onwards that examined the comparison of IGRC and WHOCGS in detecting stunting. Three studies were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that IGRC resulted in a lower prevalence of stunted and severely stunted children [risk ratio (RR): 0.28 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.15-0.51), p<0.0001, I2=97%]. Comparison between IGRC and WHOGCS for prevalence of normal height children showed that there was no difference, and this finding was not significant [RR: 1.56 (95% CI: 0.92-2.66), p=0.1, I2=100%], and the comparison for prevalence of tall children also showed that there was no difference when using IGRC or WHOGCS, and this finding was also insignificant [RR: 2.02 (95% CI: 0.78-5.20), p=0.14, I2=98%]. This meta-analysis showed that stunted and severely stunted Indonesian children are over-represented using WHOCGS. The difference between IGRC and WHOCGS has occurred because of the sample population, as IGRC includes children from all 33 provinces in Indonesia, better reflecting the growth of all children in Indonesia.

CASE REPORT
13.Using Etomidate in a Two-month-old Infant with Cushing Syndrome due to Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Ahreum Kwon, youngha choi, Jo Won Jung, Junghwan Suh, Ho-Seong Kim
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2020.2020.0164  Pages 102 - 106
Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disease caused by hypercortisolemia. Although surgical treatment is the first-line treatment in CS, the appropriate medication for the patient’s condition should be selected when medical treatment is needed. Etomidate is an adrenal-blocking drug used to treat CS and the most suitable for severe hypercortisolemia and adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), due to cardiovascular stability and an anti-tumorigenic effect. However, its use and safe recommended dosage in infants with CS is unreported. Here we describe the case of a 2-month-old girl treated with etomidate for CS caused by ACC. Even though radical mass excision was performed, severe hypercortisolemia persisted, resulting from metastatic lesions in the liver, and medical treatment was considered. The etomidate doses, no bolus dose and infusion rate of 0.03 mg/kg/hour, may be an appropriate dose for severe hypercortisolemia in infants. This case will help determine future treatment strategies for similar cases in infants.

14.Precocious Pseudo-puberty in a Two-year-old Girl, Presenting with Bilateral Ovarian Enlargement and Progressing to Unilateral Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour
Hager barakizou, Gannouni Souha, Thouraya Kamoun, Muhammed Mehdi, Fernanda Amary, Zilla Huma, Anne-laure Todeschini, Reiner Veitia, Malcolm Donaldson
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0039  Pages 107 - 113
Ovarian causes of precocious pseudo-puberty (PPP) include McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT). We describe a case of PPP in which bilateral ovarian enlargement with multiple cysts progressed to unilateral JGCT. A girl aged 2.17 years presented with three months of breast development, and rapid growth. Examination showed tall stature, height +2.6 standard deviations, Tanner stage B3P2A1. A single café au lait patch was noted. Bone age was advanced at 5 years. Pelvic ultrasound showed bilaterally enlarged ovaries (estimated volumes 76 mL on the left, 139 mL on the right), each containing multiple cysts. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) values before/after gonadotrophin administration were 0.43/0.18 and <0.1/<0.1 mUI/mL, serum estradiol 130 pg/mL, (prepubertal range <20 pg/mL). PPP of ovarian origin was diagnosed, and tamoxifen 20 mg daily started. However, after only seven weeks height velocity escalated and breast development increased to B3-4 with menorrhagia. Basal/stimulated LH and FSH were still suppressed at 0.13/0.25 and <0.1/<0.1 mUI/mL and, serum estradiol 184 pg/mL. Repeat imaging now showed normal right ovary (volume 1.8 mL) and a large left-sided vascular solid/cystic ovarian tumour which was excised (weight 850 g). Histology showed JGCT, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA. DNA from tumour tissue showed no mutation in GNAS, exon 3 of AKT1 (which contains a mutational hotspot) or FOXL2. The observation that bilateral ovarian activity progressed to unilateral development of JGCT in this patient is novel. This case highlights current uncertainties in the ontology of JGCT, and its possible relationship with MAS.

15.TSHRV656F Activating Variant of the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene in Neonatal Onset Hyperthyroidism: A Case Review
Leman Kayaş, Emine Çamtosun, Ayşehan Akıncı, Rıfat Bircan
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2020.2020.0229  Pages 114 - 118
An activating variant of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene is one of the rare causes of neonatal hyperthyroidism. This disorder may occur as a result of an autosomal dominant inheritance or sporadically through de novo variation. Here we present a case of neonatal onset congenital non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (NAH) with a sporadic germline activating TSHRV656F variant. A female infant with tachycardia, who was transferred due to hyperthyroidism in the first week of life, displayed no other symptoms or signs. The patient’s mother did not have Graves’ disease, and TSHR stimulating antibodies were not present in the mother or baby. Imaging showed thyroid gland hyperplasia and left ventricular hypertrophy, the patient was subsequently put on methimazole treatment. After six months undergoing treatment, a heterozygous p.Val656Phe (V656F) (c.1966G>T) variant was detected on exon 10 of the TSHR gene. The variant was not identified in the mother and father, so the case was assumed to be sporadic. In conclusion, although the literature describes V656F variant as a somatic variant in children and adults with toxic thyroid nodule(s) that results in the structural activation of the TSH receptor, no previous cases of neonatal hyperthyroidism due to TSHRV656F variant have been reported. This study is the first case review that highlights the relationship between TSHRV656F variant and neonatal onset NAH.

16.Long-term Follow-up of a Toddler with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report with a Literature Review of Patients Under 5 Years of Age
Ayşe Pınar Öztürk, Esin Karakılıç Özturan, Feryal Gün Soysal, Seher Ünal, Göknur Işık, Gülçin Yeğen, Semen Önder, Melek Yıldız, Şükran Poyrazoğlu, Firdevs Baş, Feyza Darendeliler
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2020.2020.0178  Pages 119 - 125
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is extremely rare in children. Herein, we present a case diagnosed with PTC at 15 months of age. We conducted a literature review of the published cases with PTC under five years of age. A 1.25-year-old male patient had initially presented with a complaint of progressively enlarging cervical mass that appeared four months earlier. On physical examination, a mass located in the anterior cervical region with the largest measurements of around 3x3 cm was detected. Cervical and thyroid ultrasonography showed a 50x27 mm solid mass in the right lateral neck. Excisional biopsy revealed a follicular variant of PTC with capsular invasion. Subsequently, he underwent a complementary total thyroidectomy. He was diagnosed with intermediate-risk (T3N0M0) PTC. He developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. In the first year of the operation, he was treated with radioiodine ablation (RAI) since basal and stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels tended to increase. Whole-body scintigraphy was normal in the first year of RAI ablation. On levothyroxine sodium (LT4) treatment, levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Tg were adequately suppressed. He is now 8.5-years-old and disease-free on LT4 replacement therapy for seven years and three months. Pediatric PTC has different biological behavior and an excellent prognosis compared to adults. The optimal treatment strategy for pediatric TC is total thyroidectomy, followed by RAI ablation. Post-operative management should include regular follow-up, TSH suppression by adequate LT4 therapy, serial Tg evaluation, and radioiodine scanning when indicated.

17.Silent Corticotroph Tumor with Adrenocortical Choristoma in an Eleven-year-old Boy
Hande Turan, Gürkan Tarçın, Özgür Mete, Ada Bulut Sinoplu, Saadet Olcay Evliyaoğlu, Büge Öz, Oya Ercan
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2020.0258  Pages 126 - 130
Silent corticotroph tumors are composed of corticotroph cells, but do not manifest any biochemical or clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. A choristoma is a benign, congenital proliferation of histologically mature tissue elements normally not present at the site of occurrence. The existence of adrenocortical cells within the pituitary gland, which can be explained as a choristoma, is a very rare entity, and the co-occurrence of these two entities have only been reported in few cases. We report an 11-year-old boy with central hypothyroidism. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging a pituitary tumor was detected, and histopathological studies led to a diagnosis of an adrenal choristoma and a silent corticotroph tumor in the pituitary gland. The presence of adrenocortical cells were confirmed by positive calretinin, inhibin and Melan A staining, and the corticotroph cells by immunohistochemistry demonstrating adrenocorticotropic hormone positivity. Herein, we report the fourth and the youngest case of silent corticotroph tumor with adrenocortical choristoma in the literature. Even though the underlying mechanism is not fully understood, suggested mechanisms are discussed.

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