ISSN: 1308-5727 | E-ISSN: 1308-5735
Volume : 16 Issue : 1 Year : 2024

Abstracting & Indexing
Turkish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes
Volume: 16  Issue: 1 - 2024

Pages I - IX

2.Diagnosis and Therapy in MCT8 Deficiency: Ongoing Challenges
Matthijs E.T. Freund, Floor van der Most, W. Edward Visser
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2024.2024-1-23  Pages 1 - 3
Abstract |Full Text PDF

3.Bone Phenotype is Always Present But Androgen Excess is Less Frequently Seen in PAPSS2 Deficiency
Didem Helvacıoğlu, Tülay Güran
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-12-10  Pages 4 - 10
3’-Phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphosulfate synthase 2 (PAPSS2) deficiency is a rare disorder due to biallelic pathogenic variants in the PAPSS2 gene. This disorder was first described in 1998 by Ahmad et al. and Faiyaz ul Haque et al. To date, 79 patients with PAPSS2 deficiency have been reported. The main reported features of these patients are related to bone abnormalities and clinical/biochemical androgen excess. Disproportionate short stature and symptoms associated with spondylar skeletal dysplasia are the most common clinical features that require clinical attention. Androgen excess has been described much less commonly. This review summarizes the currently published clinical, molecular, and biochemical features of patients with PAPSS2 deficiency.

4.Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence and Gender Differences
Doğuş Vurallı, Lala Jalilova, Ayfer Alikaşifoğlu, Z. Alev Özön, E. Nazlı Gönç, Nurgün Kandemir
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-12-12  Pages 11 - 20
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Children with T1D have a similar or higher prevalence of being overweight (OW) or obese (Ob) compared to healthy peers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in children and adolescents with T1D and the impact of obesity and sex differences on these factors.
METHODS: Data of patients aged 10-21 years and who had been using intensive insulin therapy with a diagnosis of T1D for at least three years were evaluated. Patients were divided into normal weight (NW), OW and Ob groups based on body mass index percentiles. Risk factors for CVD (obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension) were compared between groups, and impact of gender was also analyzed.
RESULTS: Data of 365 patients (200 girls, 54.8%), were evaluated. Prevalence of OW/Ob was 25.9% and was significantly higher in girls (30.6% vs 20.1%, p<0.001). Rate of hypertension was highest in OW/Ob girls followed by OW/Ob boys, and similar in NW girls and boys (p=0.003). Mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglyceride (TG) levels were highest in OW/Ob girls, followed by OW/Ob boys, NW girls and NW boys, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Mean high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were similar among groups. Rates of high LDL-c and TG were similar between OW/Ob girls and boys and higher than NW girls, followed by NW boys (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The rate of low HDL-c was similar in OW/Ob girls and boys, and higher than NW girls, followed by NW boys (p<0.001). Overall, girls were 1.9 times more likely than boys to have two or more risk factors for CVD. Factors associated with risk for CVD in multiple logistic regression analyses were being a girl, followed by higher daily insulin dose, higher hemoglobin A1c, and longer duration of diabetes (r=0.856; p<0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In spite of the increased prevalence for obesity in both sexes, the trend for CVD risk factors was greater in Ob girls, followed by Ob boys and NW girls. Girls with T1D are more likely to be OW/Ob and to have CVD risk than boys, highlighting the need for early intervention and additional studies to elucidate the causes.

5.Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Type 1 Diabetes Risk: A South Indian Familial Study
Ramasamy Thirunavukkarasu, Ayyappan Chitra, Arthur Asirvatham, Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2022-12-7  Pages 21 - 30
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D is a potent immune modulator and is associated with autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). The vitamin D levels and its receptor gene polymorphisms together in T1D are not yet investigated in the South Indian population. The present study focused on exploring the significance of vitamin D levels and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing T1D in the South Indian population.
METHODS: Patients with T1D and unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) were included in this study. Genotyping of VDR polymorphisms at four different loci (FokI- F/f, BsmI- B/b, TaqI- T/t, and ApaI- A/a) was assessed through the amplification refractive mutation systempolymerase chain reaction method. Serum vitamin D levels were measured in 98 T1D patients and 75 age- and sex-matched siblings.
RESULTS: A total of 120 patients with T1D and 214 FDRs were included. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) was observed in a higher proportion of T1D patients than in controls (52% vs. 32%; p<0.03). The frequency of the FokI-FF genotype was significantly higher [odds ratio (OR)=1.66; p<0.03] in T1D patients conferring a susceptible association with the disease. Nevertheless, the increased frequency of heterozygous Ff genotype (OR=0.57; p<0.02) among controls may confer a protective association with T1D. Furthermore, the transmission disequilibrium test revealed over-transmission of ApaI-A (T: U=15/5; p<0.006) and BsmI-B alleles (T: U=17/5; p<0.01) and under-transmission of BsmI-b/ApaI-a/TaqI-T haplotype (T: U=5.4/14.4; p=0.04) from parents to T1D patients.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The present study concludes that VDD is the major contributing risk factor to T1D development in the South Indian population. Furthermore, the FokI-FF genotype, BsmI-B, and ApaI-A alleles were positively associated with T1D. In contrast, the FokI-Ff genotype and BsmI-b/ApaI-a/TaqI-T haplotype were negatively associated with T1D.

6.Childhood Obesity as a Global Problem: a Cross-sectional Survey on Global Awareness and National Program Implementation
Aman B. Pulungan, Helena A. Puteri, Amajida F. Ratnasari, Hilary Hoey, Agustini Utari, Feyza Darendeliler, Basim Al-Zoubi, Dipesalema Joel, Arunas Valiulis, Jorge Cabana, Enver Hasanoğlu, Naveen Thacker, Mychelle Farmer
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-7-5  Pages 31 - 40
INTRODUCTION: The rising global epidemic of childhood obesity is a major public health challenge. Despite the urgency, there is a lack of data on the awareness and implementation of preventative measures. The aim of this study was to identify areas for improvement in the prevention and management of childhood obesity worldwide.
METHODS: A cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to 132 members of national pediatric societies of the International Pediatric Association.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight (21.2%) participants, each from a different country across six World Health Organization (WHO) regions completed the survey. Most participants reported that national prevalence data of childhood obesity is available (78.6%), and the number increased during the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic (60.7%). In most countries (78.6%), the amount of sugar and salt in children’s products is provided but only 42.9% enacted regulations on children-targeted advertising. Childhood obesity prevention programs from the government (64.3%) and schools (53.6%) are available with existing support from private or non-profit organizations (71.4%). Participants were aware of WHO’s guidance concerning childhood obesity (78.6%), while fewer were aware of The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund’s (UNICEF) guidance (50%). Participants reported that WHO/UNICEF guidance acted as a reference to develop policies, regulations and national programs. However, progress was hindered by poor compliance. Lastly, participants provided suggestions on tackling obesity, with responses ranging from developing and reinforcing policies, involvement of schools, and prevention across all life stages.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: There are different practices in implementing prevention measures to counter childhood obesity globally, particularly in statutory regulation on food advertising and national programs. While support and awareness was relatively high, implementation was hindered. This reflects the need for prompt, country-specific evaluation and interventions.

7.SHOX Variations in Idiopathic Short Stature in North India and a Review of Cases from Asian Countries
Priyanka Srivastava, Ankita Tyagi, Chitra Bamba, Anu Kumari, Harvinder Kaur, Saurabh Seth, Anupriya Kaur, Inusha Panigrahi, Devi Dayal, Subhodip Pramanik, Kausik Mandal
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-3-13  Pages 41 - 49
INTRODUCTION: Short stature homeobox (SHOX) haploinsufficiency underlies idiopathic short stature (ISS) and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. The worldwide prevalence of SHOX variations in ISS varies from 2.5% to 15.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the implication of SHOX variation in ISS in North Indians and compare this with other cases of SHOX variations from Asian population.
METHODS: SHOX gene analysis was carried out by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification followed by Sanger sequencing in 54 patients with variable phenotypes. Comparison with other reports in a meta-analysis comprising the current study and 11 previous studies (n=979) was performed.
RESULTS: SHOX analysis resulted in 12.9% positivity (7.4% deletions and 5.5% duplications). SHOX association was seen significantly related to gender, with predominance in females (p=0.047). Short arms and forearms were the only significantly associated trait seen in 51.9% of children. The overall prevalence of SHOX variation was 15.2% in Asians with ISS. No significant difference was found in geographical region-specific analysis.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study summarises findings from the last decade and provides an updated picture of the prevalence of SHOX variations in Asians, emphasizing their potential as therapeutic targets in ISS patients. Further high quality, large investigations including functional validation is warranted to validate this association.

8.Minipuberty in Male Full-term Neonates Appropriate and Small for Gestational Age and in Preterm Babies: Data from a Single Centre
Alessandra Boncompagni, Elisa Pietrella, Erica Passini, Chiarina Grisolia, Mara Tagliazucchi, Enrico Tagliafico, Licia Lugli, Alberto Berardi, Lorenzo Iughetti, Laura Lucaccioni
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-4-9  Pages 50 - 59
INTRODUCTION: The postnatal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is usually known as “minipuberty”. There are still open questions about its biological function and significance depending on sex, gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) with few available longitudinal data.
METHODS: A single-centre, longitudinal study to quantify urinary follicle stimulating hormone (uFSH), luteinizing hormone (uLH) and testosterone (uTs) in male neonates. Neonates were enrolled and stratified into three subgroups: full-term boys appropriate for GA (FT AGA); FT boys with BW ≤3rd centile [FT small for gestational age (SGA)]; and preterm (PT) boys ≤33 weeks of GA. Urinary hormones were correlated to simultaneous auxological parameters, linear growth and external genitalia at scheduled time-points.
RESULTS: Forty-six boys were recruited, with subgroup sizes FT AGA n=23, FT SGA n=11 and PT n=12. PT boys display a pulsatile pattern of urinary gonadotropins (uGns) with higher levels of uLH and a gradual increase of uTs. Testicular descent started from 29-32 weeks with the peak of uTs. During the first 12-months post-term age (PTA), FT AGA boys displayed a better linear growth (p<0.05). PT showed higher uGns levels until 3-months PTA. PT babies had higher uLH levels than FT AGA, with a peak at 7 and 30 days, during the first 90 days of life (p<0.001) and higher uTs levels. Correlation analysis between penile growth of all neonates and uTs was significant (p=0.04) but not within subgroups.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study investigated postnatal HPG axis activation in term and PT infants. Minipuberty may involve an early window of opportunity to evaluate the functionality of the HPG axis. Further studies with a long-term follow-up are needed with a special focus on possible consequences of GA and BW.

9.Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Infants with Transient Hypothyroxinemia of Prematurity in a Newborn Intensive Care Unit
Erhan Aygün, Seda Yilmaz Semerci, Adviye Çakıl Sağlık, Emine Yurdakul Ertürk
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-6-5  Pages 60 - 68
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate neurological development of infants with transient premature hypothyroxinemia (THOP).
METHODS: This prospective study included newborns who were born between 28-36 weeks of gestation (GW) and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Newborns exposed to maternal thyroid disease, or with severe intracranial problems, and congenital anomalies were excluded. Infants with THOP were the study group and those without THOP formed the control group. The study group was subdivided into those receiving levothyroxine replacement (5 μg/kg/day) and those who were untreated. Neonatal demographics, and morbidities, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were evaluated. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and ASQ: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE) developmental screening tests were administered to the entire study population at the corrected age of two years.
RESULTS: Seventy infants were included in this study, 40 of whom had THOP. The mean GW was 34.4±3.8 weeks in the study group and 37.2±2.3 weeks in controls (p=0.69). Mean overall birth weight was 1640±428 g. Levothyroxine replacement was started in 12/40 infants (30%). The groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics. Rates of BPD and ROP were higher in the treated group (p=0.01). ASQ and ASQ: SE results did not differ between groups (p=0.75), nor did these scores differ between infants with THOP who did or did not receive levothyroxine (p=0.14).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although levothyroxine replacement therapy was associated with increased rates of BPD and ROP, this treatment did not appear to improve long-term neurological outcomes in this small group of infants with THOP. Prospective controlled studies with much larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the role of levothyroxine replacement in THOP.

10.Relationship of Glucagon-like Peptide 1 and Peptide YY with Catch-up Growth in Children Born Small for Gestational Age
Li Wang, Su Zhe, Yu-Chuan Li, Bing Yan Cao, Chang Su, Chun Xiu Gong
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-5-21  Pages 69 - 75
INTRODUCTION: Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a greater risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Gastrointestinal peptides, some secreted by intestinal L cells, regulate glucose and lipid metabolism and act on the hypothalamus to regulate energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to explore whether gastrointestinal peptides are involved in metabolic disorders in SGA, which remains unclear.
METHODS: The secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were investigated in prepubertal children born SGA, the differences between catch-up growth and persistent short stature were compared, and correlation with glucose and lipid metabolism was analyzed. GLP-1, PYY, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations were analyzed in prepubertal children aged 4-10 years, stratified into three groups: short-SGA (SGA-s), catch-up growth SGA, and normal growth appropriate for gestational age (AGA).
RESULTS: Fasting GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly lower in the SGA group than in the AGA group (p<0.05), and the GLP-1 level in infants born SGA with catch-up growth was lower than that in the SGA-s group (p<0.05). In the SGA population, GLP-1 showed a weak negative correlation with catch-up growth (r=-0.326) and positive correlation with fasting insulin (r=0.331).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Lower GLP-1 concentrations may be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in prepubertal children born SGA with catch-up growth. This is indirect evidence that impaired intestinal L cell function may be involved in the development of metabolic complications in SGA children.

11.Clinical Variability in a Family with Noonan Syndrome with a Homozygous PTPN11 Gene Variant in Two Individuals
Ruken Yıldırım, Edip Ünal, Şervan Özalkak, Akçahan Akalın, Ayça Aykut, Nevzat Yılmaz
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-5-16  Pages 76 - 83
INTRODUCTION: Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, congenital heart defects, and varying levels of developmental delays. It is a genetic, multisystem disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance and is the most common of the RASopathies. In approximately 50% of patients, NS is caused by variants in the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 11 (PTPN11) gene. The aim of this study was to evaluate two patients with a previously reported PTPN11 homozygous variant for the first time and seven other kindred members carrying the same heterozygous variant in terms of clinical, biochemical, genetic, and response to treatment.
METHODS: Nine patients diagnosed with NS due to the same variants in the PTPN11 gene were included in the study.
RESULTS: The median (range) age at diagnosis was 11.5 (6.8-13.9) years and the mean follow-up duration was 4.7 (1-7.6) years. In eight patients (88.9%), short stature was present. The height standard deviation score of the patients on admission was -3.24±1.15. In six of the patients, growth hormone treatment was initiated. Cardiovascular or bleeding disorders were not detected in any of the patients. Three (33.3%) had hearing loss, two (22.2%) had ocular findings and one (11.1%) had a horseshoe kidney. The mean psychomotor development performance score was 84.03±17.09 and the verbal score was 82.88±9.42. Genetic analysis revealed a variant in the PTPN11 gene [c.772G>A; (p.Glu258Lys)] that had been previously described and was detected in all patients. Two patients were homozygous for this variant and short stature was more severe in these two.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A previously described in PTPN11 affected nine members of the same kindred, two with homozygous inheritance and the remainder being heterozygous. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first homozygous PTPN11 case reports published, coming from two related consanguineous families.

12.Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation on Ischemia-modified Albumin Levels in vivo
Nursel Muratoğlu Şahin, Senem Esen, Şenay Savaş Erdeve, Salim Neşelioğlu, Özcan Erel, Semra Çetinkaya
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-5-22  Pages 84 - 90
INTRODUCTION: Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) formation is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while increased cortisol leads to decreased ROS levels. We aimed to evaluate the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation on IMA levels and whether the effect was dose-dependent or not.
METHODS: A total of 99 subjects with normal ACTH test results were included in the study. Of these, 80 had standard-dose ACTH test while 19 had low-dose ACTH test. Blood samples were collected to determine cortisol and IMA levels; at minutes 0, 30, and 60 following the standard-dose ACTH test and at minutes 0 and 30 following the low-dose ACTH test.
RESULTS: IMA levels decreased significantly within 30 minutes and the decrease continued up to the sixtieth minute (p=0.002) after standard-dose ACTH stimulation. After ACTH stimulation, a weak negative correlation was found between peak cortisol and IMA levels at the thirtieth minute (r=0.233, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in IMA levels after low-dose ACTH stimulation, despite an increase in cortisol (p=0.161).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: IMA levels decreased rapidly after standard-dose ACTH stimulation, while a decrease in IMA levels was not observed after low-dose ACTH stimulation. The lack of decrease in IMA levels after low-dose ACTH stimulation suggests a possible dose-dependent relationship between ACTH and IMA. The moderate increase in cortisol with no reduction in IMA levels after low-dose ACTH stimulation and the weak correlation between peak cortisol and 30-minute IMA levels after standard-dose ACTH stimulation suggest that ACTH may have a direct effect on IMA.

13.A Novel KISS1R Loss-of-function Variant in a Chinese Child with Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism
Peng Zhou, Jin Wu
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2022.2022-3-18  Pages 91 - 94
Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare genetic disorder, resulting from impaired production, secretion, or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Variants of the KISS1R gene can result in CHH. Herein we describe a Chinese boy with CHH, caused by a novel, compound heterozygous variant in KISS1R. A male infant presented to the pediatric urological surgeon at three months of age for micropenis. Laboratory investigations done at this time revealed low levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone, suggesting a lack of minipuberty. Topical application of dihydrotestosterone gel was recommended, but the parents refused treatment. The child was brought to our hospital at 3.3 years of age for the same complaint. A diagnosis of CHH was considered, and next generation sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous variant including a novel c.182C>A (p.S61*) and a c.418C>T (p.R140C) in KISS1R. We describe a novel compound heterozygous variant in the KISS1R in a boy with CHH, born to non-consanguineous Chinese parents. This report adds to the spectrum of variants in KISS1R seen in children with CHH.

14.Identification of a Novel CYP11B2 Variant in a Family with Varying Degrees of Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency
Mark R. Garrelfs, Tuula Rinne, Jacquelien J. Hillebrand, Peter Lauffer, Merijn W. Bijlsma, Hedi L. Claahsen-van der Grinten, Nicole de Leeuw, Martijn J.J. Finken, Joost Rotteveel, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Max Nieuwdorp, A.S. Paul van Trotsenburg, Christiaan F. Mooij
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2022.2022-3-4  Pages 95 - 101
Isolated aldosterone synthase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in CYP11B2, resulting in impaired aldosterone synthesis. We report on a neonate with isolated aldosterone synthase deficiency caused by a novel homozygous CYP11B2 variant Chr8: NM_000498.3: c.400G>A p.(Gly134Arg). The patient presented shortly after birth with severe signs of aldosterone deficiency. Interestingly, segregation analysis revealed that the patient’s asymptomatic father was also homozygous for the CYP11B2 variant. Biochemical evaluation of the father indicated subclinical enzyme impairment, characterized by elevated aldosterone precursors. Apparently, this homozygous variant led to different clinical phenotypes in two affected relatives. In this manuscript we elaborate on the biochemical and genetic work-up performed and describe potential pitfalls in CYP11B2 sequencing due to its homology to CYP11B1.

15.Early Diagnosis of Wolfram Syndrome by Ophthalmologic Screening in a Patient with Type 1B Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report
Takahide Kokumai, Shigeru Suzuki, Noriko Nishikawa, Hinako Yamamura, Tokuo Mukai, Yusuke Tanahashi, Satoru Takahashi
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2022.2022-4-11  Pages 102 - 105
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a monogenic diabetes caused by variants of the WFS1 gene. It is characterized by diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy. Individuals with WS initially present with autoantibody-negative type 1 DM (type 1B DM; T1BDM). The diagnosis is often delayed or misdiagnosed, even after visual impairment becomes apparent. We report a case of WS diagnosed by ophthalmologic screening before the appearance of visual impairment. A 7-year-old male patient developed T1BDM at the age of 3 years. At 6 years of age, his endogenous insulin secretion decreased but was not completely absent, and glycemic control was good with insulin treatment. Fundus examination at that time revealed optic nerve head pallor, and WFS1 gene analysis confirmed a compound heterozygous variant (c.2483delinsGGA/c.1247T>A). Ophthalmological screening can help in early diagnosis of WS in T1BDM, especially when endogenous insulin secretion is preserved, which would facilitate effective treatment.

16.Long-term Survival in a Child with Malignant Insulinoma After Liver Transplantation
Elzbieta Moszczynska, Arnika Wydra, Klaudia Zasada, Marta Baszynska-wilk, Dorota Majak, Anna Sliwinska, Wieslawa Grajkowska
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2022.2022-3-5  Pages 106 - 110
Insulinoma is one of the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) and is exceptionally rare in children. The tumor leads to severe hypoglycemia caused by excessive insulin release. We report a pediatric patient with malignant insulinoma who underwent liver transplantation (LT) due to liver metastases of the insulinoma. A 13-year-old girl presented with symptoms of hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism. On computed tomography (CT), a polycystic lesion in the head of the pancreas and enlarged lymph nodes were revealed. A modified Whipple’s operation was performed, and histological examination confirmed PanNET. CT also showed an enlarged liver with numerous metastases. Allogeneic LT was carried out successfully. Positron emission tomography-CT using 68Ga-DOTA-labeled somatostatin analogs (SSAs) at the age of 22 years confirmed complete metabolic remission. The patient currently remains under immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative treatment. Multiple surgical interventions, LT combined with SSAs, and immunosuppressive medication proved effective in this case of metastatic malignant insulinoma.

17.Gastroparesis in Adolescent Patient with Type 1 Diabetes: Severe Presentation of a Rare Pediatric Complication
Fortunato Lombardo, Bruno Bombaci, Stefano Costa, Mariella Valenzise, Nino Giannitto, Davide Cardile, Sergio Baldari, Giuseppina Salzano, Stefano Passanisi
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2022.2022-5-20  Pages 111 - 115
Gastroparesis is a long-term complication of diabetes related to autonomic neuropathy. It is characterized clinically by delayed gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is the gold standard for diagnosis as it reveals delayed gastric emptying. Therapeutic strategies include dietary modifications, improvement of glycemic control, and prokinetic drugs. Case descriptions of diabetic gastroparesis in pediatric ages are very scarce. We report the case of a 16-year-old adolescent with severe presentation of diabetic gastroparesis. She presented with recurrent episodes of nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain which led progressively to reduced oral intake and weight loss. Her past glycemic control had been quite brittle, as demonstrated by several hospitalizations due to diabetic ketoacidosis and recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia. After the exclusion of infectious, mechanical, metabolic, and neurological causes of vomiting, a gastric emptying scintigraphy was performed, leading to the diagnosis of gastroparesis. Treatment with metoclopramide was started with progressive relief of symptoms. To improve glycemic control, insulin therapy with an advanced hybrid, closed loop system was successfully started. Pediatricians should consider diabetic gastroparesis in children and adolescents with long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes and appropriate symptomology.

18.Impact of Early Intervention with Triiodothyroacetic Acid on Peripheral and Neurodevelopmental Findings in a Boy with MCT8 Deficiency
Yağmur Ünsal, Gamze Hayran
doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2023-10-1  Pages 116 - 122
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder characterized by peripheral thyrotoxicosis and severe cognitive and motor disability due to cerebral hypothyroidism. 3,3’,5-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac) was shown to improve peripheral thyrotoxicosis but data on neurodevelopmental outcome are scarce. We present a case of MCT8 deficiency and the experience with Triac focusing on change in neurodevelopmental and peripheral features. A five-month-old boy was referred because of feeding difficulty, central hypotonia and global developmental delay. Despite six months of physiotherapy, physical developmental milestones did not improve, and distal muscle tone was increased. A hemizygous pathogenic variant in SLC16A2 was found and MCT8 deficiency was confirmed at 19-months. Thyroid stimulating hormone was 2.83 mIU/mL, free thyroxine 6.24 pmol/L (N=12-22) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 15.65pmol/L (N=3.1-6.8). He had tachycardia, blood pressure and transaminases were elevated. Triac was started at 21-months. Two weeks after treatment, FT3 dramatically decreased, steady normal serum FT3 was achieved at 28-months. Assessment of neurodevelopmental milestones and signs of hyperthyroidism were evaluated at baseline, 6 months and 12 months after treatment. Signs of hyperthyroidism were improved by 6 months. Developmental composite scores of Bayley Scales of Infant Developmental 3rd Edition remained the same but important developmental milestones (head control, recognition of caregiver, response to his name) were attained, regression in the attained milestones were not observed. Initial dose, management protocol for Triac and research into its efficacy on neurodevelopmental signs in MCT8 deficiency are progressing. This case presents evidence that Triac may resolve peripheral thyrotoxicosis successfully and may slow neurodevelopmental regression, while some developmental milestones were achieved after one year of treatment.

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