ISSN: 1308-5727 | E-ISSN: 1308-5735
Volume : 5 Issue : 1 Year : 2022
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Turkish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes
Optimising Outcome in Congenital Hypothyroidism; Current Opinions on Best Practice in Initial Assessment and Subsequent Management [J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol]
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013; 5(1): 13-22 | DOI: 10.4274/Jcrpe.849

Optimising Outcome in Congenital Hypothyroidism; Current Opinions on Best Practice in Initial Assessment and Subsequent Management

Malcolm Donaldson1, Jeremy Jones1
Glasgow University, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Child Health Unit, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), usually of the primary and permanent variety, is an eminently preventable cause of growth retardation and mental handicap whose outlook has been transformed by newborn screening, usually involving the measurement of capillary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Severe primary CH, due for example to athyreosis, may result in subtle cognitive, behavioural and sensori-motor deficits, but the extent to which these can be offset by optimal postnatal diagnosis and management remains uncertain. This is because the available adult follow-up data reflect the outcome of previous management in the 1970s and 1980s, and also because the accurate neuro-psychological assessment of children is difficult, particularly in the preschool population. There is an urgent need to develop new consensus guidelines and to ensure that the children managed according to such guidelines are systematically and prospectively assessed so that good quality outcome data become available. In this review, key recommendations in the management of CH include: screening at day 3 so that severely affected infants can begin treatment within the first 10 days of life; setting the TSH referral cut-off at 8-10 mU/L; adopting a disciplined diagnostic algorithm to evaluate referred cases, with measurement of venous free thyroxine (T4), TSH and thyroglobulin combined with dual ultrasound and radioisotope imaging; initial treatment with a T4 dose of 50 g daily in infants weighing ? 2.5 kg and 15 g/kg/day in infants weighing < 2.5 kg followed by weekly review until thyroid function is normalised; and maintenance of free T4 levels between 15-26 pmol/L and TSH between 0.5-5 mU/L thereafter to avoid both under- and overtreatment.

Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism, thyroxine, thyroid ultrasound, radioisotope scanning

Malcolm Donaldson, Jeremy Jones. Optimising Outcome in Congenital Hypothyroidism; Current Opinions on Best Practice in Initial Assessment and Subsequent Management. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013; 5(1): 13-22
Manuscript Language: English
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