INTRODUCTION: Data regarding diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type one diabetes (T1D) in developing countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of DKA at the onset of T1D in children and adolescents in Jordan and to compare the clinical and biochemical characteristics between the group that presented with DKA and the group that did not.
METHODS: The records of 341 children and adolescents, less than sixteen years of age, who were diagnosed with T1D between 2015 and 2019 were evaluated retrospectively.
RESULTS: Of all the children diagnosed with T1D, 108 (31.7%) presented with DKA. The majority had mild or moderate DKA (38% and 33.3% respectively). Higher paternal education levels were associated with a lower probability of presenting with DKA (p=0.043). A family history of T1D had a protective effect on the occurrence of DKA (Odds ratio=2.138; 95% confidence interval=1.167-3.917, p=0.014). Patients with celiac disease and higher HbA1c levels were more likely to experience recurrent episodes of DKA, (p=0.004 and 0.011, respectively).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In Jordan, the rate of DKA at presentation of T1D remains high. Prevention campaigns are needed to increase diabetes awareness among the public and healthcare providers.