INTRODUCTION: Phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG) is a disorder of protein N-glycosylation with a wide clinical spectrum. Hypoglycemia is rarely reported in PMM2-CDG. In this study, we evaluated cause, treatment options and outcomes in cases with hypoglycemia in the course of PMM2-CDG.
METHODS: Clinical records of patients followed with PMM2-CDG within the last two decades were reviewed. Medical data of patients with hypoglycemia were evaluated in more detail. Demographic and clinical findings, organ involvement and laboratory investigations at time of hypoglycemia were recorded. Time of first attack of hypoglycemia, cause, treatment modalities, duration of hypoglycemia (permanent/transient), and duration of treatment, as well as outcome were also recorded. Other published cases with PMM2-CDG and hypoglycemia are also reviewed in order to elucidate characteristics as well as pathophysiology of hypoglycemia.
RESULTS: Nine patients with PMM2-CDG were reviewed, and hypoglycemia was present in three cases. All three had hyperinsulinism as the cause of hypoglycemia. In the first two cases reported here, serum insulin level concurrent with hypoglycemic episodes was elevated, and glucose response was exaggerated during glucagon test, favoring hyperinsulinism. However, in the third case, the serum insulin level at time of hypoglycemia was not so high but hypoglycemia responded well to diazoxide. Hyperinsulinism was permanent in two of these three cases. No genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with respect to hyperinsulinism.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The main cause of hypoglycemia in PMM2-CDG appears to be hyperinsulinism. Although insulin levels at the time of hypoglycemia may not be very high, hypoglycemia in patients with PMM2 responds well to diazoxide.